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Endometriosis. Causes and symptoms of endometriosis

Endometriosis. Causes and symptoms of endometriosis


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Endometriosis is considered a progressive disease, because, over time, pieces of endometrium or uterine lining implant outside the uterus. Today the endometriosis affects approximately 180 million women worldwide, in addition to being one of the causes for female infertility.

In most cases, the foci of endometriosis are located in the pelvic area (peritoneum, ovaries, intestine or bladder), but they can also implant in other organs (skin, lungs). These foci are subject to the influence of the hormones of the menstrual cycle and, like the endometrium, they also evolve cyclically and bleed.

Despite decades of research on the subject, scientific studies have yet to find the cause of endometriosis and various theories are being shuffled. One of them is based on retrograde menstruation, which consists of uterine bleeding through the fallopian tubes. This phenomenon causes a part of the menstruation that runs through the tubes to fall into the abdomen, instead of being expelled outwards.

Another theory points to a possible defect in immunity responsible for cleaning the abdomen of microbes and abnormal cells. The number of defenses is not diminished, but has a lower quality. This would prevent endometrial cells from being recognized as foreign (usually only within the uterus) and would allow them free passage for seeding into internal organs.

Genetic inheritance is another of the theories that tries to explain the causes of endometriosis, since there are usually several affected women in the same family.

The blood contained in the cysts or foci of endometriosis gives them a reddish-brown color. On the body, they are arranged in the form of small flat tiles. Its size can range from one or two cm to ten or fifteen. If part of the fluid they contain spills into the abdomen, it causes inflammation and, as a consequence, defense or scar tissue.

If these scars form between two organs, adhesions appear and can involve the uterus, ovaries, tubes and intestine. If endometriosis infiltrates the uterine wall like roots, forms adenomyosis, and the uterus increases in size, it becomes softer and more painful. If it affects the bladder of the urine, it can cause discomfort with urination and small losses of blood with abdominal pain similar to spasms and diarrhea.

Endometriosis is a disorder that occurs when the endometrium (tissue that lines the inside of the uterus) begins to grow outside the uterus, in the ovaries, in the fallopian tubes, affecting a woman's fertility.

In some women, endometriosis does not produce symptoms and the diagnosis occurs by chance after being operated on for another pathology. But, it is also possible that you have any of these symptoms or several combined:

- Dysmenorrhea or menstrual pain
Generally, the pain is due to the formation of prostaglandins in the endometrial tissue, which cause strong uterine contractions.

- Dyspareunia or pain with sexual intercourse
If vaginal penetration presses on any of the areas affected by endometriosis, such as the ovaries (which are located behind and in the lower part of the uterus), the vaginal roof and the uterosacral ligaments (responsible for keeping the uterus in the correct position and close of the lower part of the spine in the sacrum), causes pain.

- Abnormal uterine bleeding
The changes that endometriosis causes can alter the endometrial cycle and generate small extemporaneous losses.

- Reproductive problems
Sterility (inability to achieve pregnancy) or infertility (repeat abortions) are reasons for consultation, which allow the diagnosis of endometriosis. This disease can alter fertility through several mechanisms: inflammation within the abdomen, which prevents the union between the ovum and the sperm; pelvic adhesions that impede the normal movement of the tubes and even obstruct them; endometriosis in the ovaries that prevents normal ovulation and production of sex hormones and secretion of substances within the abdomen that are not usual and interfere with the normal fertility process.

Once pregnant, women with endometriosis have a higher risk of miscarriage, which decreases when the disease is corrected. Apparently, these abnormal substances manufactured by endometriosis and the alterations of the defenses that they generate, could be responsible for these recurrent gestational losses.

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Video: Endometriosis - Causes, Symptoms, Treatments u0026 More (May 2022).